Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, Science, Sports Science, Strength and Conditioning Research, Uncategorized

Strength and Conditioning Research the TL;DR Version – March 2016

  • If you train both fitness and strength for either sport or your own enjoyment and want optimal adaptation than it may be wise to alternate fitness and strength based days in your programme.
  • If strength and power gains are the focus of your training the frequency and volume of endurance training should be kept relatively low.
  • Longer rest is needed to sustain workloads during heavy exercises than during lighter exercises.  Thanks, science.
  • If you’re utilising sled sprints in your programme use a waist harness.
  • If you do a DUP training routine and lift to failure on a weekly basis then swapping the power and strength session order might let you get some more volume in.
  • For an experienced athlete in a power sport it’s not about the size of the muscle but what it’s made up of that influences performance.

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Specific Training Effects of Concurrent Aerobic and Strength Exercises Depend on Recovery Duration

58 amateur rugby players were split into one of four different groups.  Control, C-0H (who performed cardio straight after strength training), C-6H (who performed cardio 6 hours after strength training) and C-24H (who performed cardio 24 hours after strength training.

All groups engaged in the same programme over a 7-week training period.  Over the 7 weeks, period control was lesser in the C-0H group when compared to the C-6H and C-24H.

Vo2 max gains were higher in the C-24H group than in the C-0H and C-6H groups.  The authors recommended that fitness coaches stay away from scheduling contradicting qualities (fitness and strength) with less than 6 hours of recovery.

TL;DR – if you train both fitness and strength for either sport or your own enjoyment and want optimal adaptation than it may be wise to alternate fitness and strength based days in your programme.

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Performance and Endocrine Responses to Differing Ratios of Concurrent Strength and Endurance Training

30 resistance trained men took part in the study during which they completed 6 weeks of 3x per day a week training involving either

  • 3x per week of strength training (ST)
  • 3x per week of concurrent strength training and endurance training of a 3:1 ratio. (CT3)
  • 3x per week of concurrent strength training and endurance training of a 1:1 ratio. (CT1)
  • No training (CON)

Strength training consisted of multijoint full body lifts and endurance training consisted of treadmill running.   Testing was conducted at 3 and 6 weeks.  Strength training showed greater increases in strength than Strength 3 – Endurance 1 with both showing greater increases than the other two groups.

Strength training group showed a greater increase in lower body power than all other groups.  Strength 1 – Endurance 1 ratio group exhibited the highest levels of cortisol.

TL;DR – if strength and power gains are the focus of your training the frequency and volume of endurance training should be kept relatively low.

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Effect of Different Interset Rest Intervals on Performance of Single and Multijoint Exercises With Near-Maximal Loads

15 trained men took part in the study where they looked at the effect of 4 different interset rest periods (1, 2, 3 and 5 minutes) on the total number of repetitions completed utilising 5 sets of a 3 rep max load.  These rest periods were compared across chest fly (single joint exercise) and bench press (multi-joint exercise).

All rest periods greater than 1 minutes (2,3 and 5) were better for the total number of reps completed for each exercise.  For bench press significantly higher numbers of reps were completed utilising 3 and 5 minutes rest when compared to 1 and 2 minutes.

The researchers recommended rests of 2 minutes for single joint exercises and rests of 3-5 minutes for multi-joint exercises.

TL;DR – Longer rest is needed to sustain workloads during heavy exercises than during lighter exercises.  Thanks, science.

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Impact of Harness Attachment Point on Kinetics and Kinematics During Sled Towing

Bently et al performed a kinetic analysis utilising three different variations of sprinting.

  • Normal sprinting
  • Sprinting with a sled utilising a 10% speed decrement with a shoulder harness.
  • Sprinting with a sled utilising a 10% speed decrement with a waist harness.

The waist harness produced the greatest amounts of horizontal forces and altered joint and trunk angle less than the shoulder harness.

TL;DR – if you’re utilising sled sprints in your programme use a waist harness.

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Modified Daily Undulating Periodization Model Produces Greater Performance Than a Traditional Configuration in Powerlifters

Michael Zourdos et al looked at the effects of two ways of organising a daily undulating periodization routine on the sports performance of powerlifters (squat, bench and deadlift total) and their hormonal response to the programmes.

18 college aged powerlifters were split into two experimental groups

  • Traditional DUP order of sessions- hypertrophy training, strength training and power training.
  • Modified DUP order of sessions – hypertrophy training, power training and strength training.

During both power and hypertrophy sessions, lifters performed the same number of sets and reps at the same percentages.  However during strength sessions, they lifted to failure so the effects of the order could be compared against total volume across the 6-week training programme.

After the 6-week programme, the modified group achieved greater total volumes for squat and bench press.  They also achieved a better 1RM result in the bench press.  Testosterone decreases in week 5 and 6 of training while cortisol declined at weeks 3 and 4.

TL;DR – If you do a DUP training routine and lift to failure on a weekly basis then swapping the power and strength session order might let you get some more volume in.

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Role of Muscle Morphology in Jumping, Sprinting, and Throwing Performance in Participants With Different Power Training Duration Experience

36 power-trained athletes took part in a cross-sectional study and were split into three main subcategories

  • Less experienced (<1year training)
  • Moderately experienced (1-3 years training)
  • Experienced (4-7 years training)

They tested countermovement jump, 60-metre sprint and shot throwing.  Their muscle mass, fiber type and architecture was also examined using various techniques.

Jump performance was correlated with lean body mass, fascicle length and type II fiber size.

Sprint performance was only correlated with thigh muscle size.

Shot putt performance was correlated with lean body mass, type 1 and type II fiber size.

For the experienced group the only distinguishing factors for performance where fascicle length and the size of type II fibers were the important factors for performance.

TL;DR – for an experienced athlete in a power sport it’s not about the size of the muscle but what it’s made up of that influences performance.

 

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